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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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from Prince William Sound, with a length of 12 miles and a -width of 2 to 4 miles; (b) a middle portion trending nearly at right angles with the last and having a length of 6 miles and a width of about 2 miles; and (c) an inner portion, called Applegate Arm, extending at right angles to the last and nearly parallel to the outer division, with a length of 18£ miles, and a width of 2 or 3 miles.
At the southern end of the outer portion is the cove containing Nellie Juan Glacier, and Blue Fiord, at the head of which is Ultramarine Glacier. A fiord called McClure Bay lies further northeast. With the exception of Contact Glacier on the southern side there are no ice tongues close to the shore of the second section of the fiord, which has several indentations. Applegate Arm has three ice tongues on the western side and five on the eastern. The Kenai Mountains near this fiord rise to heights of four or five thousand feet, with peaks that are even higher.
Observations of Glaciers, The observations of the ice tongues of Port Nellie Juan began in May, 1887, when Applegate discovered and explored this fiord, making a map which was first reproduced by Davidson.1 Applegate published no description of the glaciers.
In August, 1908, Grant and Higgins spent two days in this inlet, making a map (Fig. 55), taking many photographs, and making the observations which are quoted in this chapter.8
The junior author spent August 6 to 8, 1910, in Port Nellie Juan, visiting the Nellie Juan Glacier and seeing Ultramarine and Cotterell Glaciers from a distance. As already stated, we were unable to make soundings or to visit Applegate Arm.
Nellie Juan Glacier—The Ice Tongue. Nellie Juan Glacier rises in unexplored snow-fields of the Kenai Mountains (Fig. 55), flowing northeastward to a cove on the southern side of the fiord, with a known length of over 8 miles and a width at the terminus of a mile. West of it a smaller glacier descends from the same snowfield. Nellie Juan Glacier is only moderately crevassed, has a low terminal slope, and two miles from the terminus is fed by two good-sized tributaries, the larger branch being on the northern side. The cove in which this glacier terminates is about 2f miles long, and 1$ to 2 miles wide. Although the glacier extends down to this cove, the terminal ice cliff of 1910 did not reach the sea at low tide except in a small V-shaped indentation near the eastern margin, the only point where icebergs were then discharged. At high tide the water bathed most of the terminus of the glacier, which was precipitous though not very high; but at low tide the glacier front was separated from the cove by a narrow strip of sand, across which several streams flowed, the chief one being near the western edge, where the glacier terminus rested on a granite hill.
Retreat of Glacier. When first mapped by Applegate in 1887, this glacier is represented as terminating in the sea, its ice cliff facing the northeast. There was slight r&-treat from 1887 to 1908, when Grant and Higgins showed the terminus on the land, much as in 1910. Their description states that the end of the glacier "rests on a gravel beach, most of-which is covered by high tide; and near the center of 'the front the ice is bathed
> Applegate, S., map reproduced in Davidson's Glaciers of Alaska that are Shown on Russian Charts or Mentioned in Older Narratives, Trans, and Proc., Geog. Soc. of the Pacific, Vol. 8, 1904, pp. 86-7 and Map XI.
«Grant, U. S. and Higgins, D. F., Glaciers of the West Coast of Prince Wflliam Sound, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XLni, 1911, pp. 409-413; preliminary notes in H. F. Reid's Variations of Glaciers, Journ. Geol., Vol. XVH, 1909, p. 671; maps in Bull. 284, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, Fig. 4, p. 79; in Bull. 379, Ibid., 1909, PI. IV. facing p. 88, and in Bull. 443, Ibid., 1910, Pis. I and H.